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XPro1595, INB03, Quellor™ and LIVNate™ are identical products.
INB03 is for cancer, XPro1595 is for Alzheimer’s disease and Treatment Resistant Depression


78.   Selective inhibition of soluble tumor necrosis factor signaling reduces abdominal aortic aneurysm progression.
Griepke S, Grupe E, Lindholt JS, Fuglsang EH, Steffensen LB, Beck HC, Larsen MD, Bang-Møller SK, Overgaard M, Rasmussen LM, Lambertsen KL, Stubbe J.
Front Cardiovasc Med. 2022 Sep 16;9:942342. doi: 10.3389/fcvm.2022.942342. eCollection 2022. PMID: 36186984

77.   Sustained TNF signaling is required for the synaptic and anxiety-like behavioral response to acute stress.
Kemp GM, Altimimi HF, Nho Y, Heir R, Klyczek A, Stellwagen D.
Mol Psychiatry. 2022 Sep 14. doi: 10.1038/s41380-022-01737-x. Online ahead of print. PMID: 36104437

76. The role of Tumour Necrosis Factor in neuroinflammation associated with Parkinson's disease and targeted therapies.
Amin R, Quispe C, Docea AO, Ydyrys A, Kulbayeva M, Durna Daştan S, Calina D, Sharifi-Rad J.
Neurochem Int. 2022 Sep;158:105376. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2022.105376. Epub 2022 Jun 3.PMID: 35667491.REVIEW PAPER

75.   Co-expression of TNF receptors 1 and 2 on melanomas facilitates soluble TNF-induced resistance to MAPK pathway inhibitors.
Sander CA, Rush EA, Shi J, Arantes LMRB, Tesi RJ, Ross MA, Calderon MJ, Watkins SC, Kirkwood JM, Ferris RL, Butterfield LH, Vujanovic L.
J Transl Med. 2022 Jul 25;20(1):331. doi: 10.1186/s12967-022-03538-w. PMID: 35879777

74.   Inflammation and immune dysfunction in Parkinson disease.
Tansey MG, Wallings RL, Houser MC, Herrick MK, Keating CE, Joers V.
Nat Rev Immunol. 2022 Mar 4:1-17. doi: 10.1038/s41577-022-00684-6. Online ahead of print. PMID: 35246670. REVIEW PAPER

73.   Selective inhibition of soluble TNF using XPro1595 improves hippocampal pathology to promote improved neurological recovery following traumatic brain injury in mice.
Larson K, Damon M, Randhi R, Nixon-Lee N, J Dixon K.CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2022 Jun 10. doi: 10.2174/1871527321666220610104908. Online ahead of print. PMID: 35692164


72.   Selective targeting of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 induces stable protection from Crohn's-like ileitis in TNF ΔARE mice.
Chakraborty R, Maltz MR, Del Castillo D, Tandel PN, Messih N, Anguiano M, Lo DD. J Crohns Colitis. 2021 Dec 10:jjab222. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjab222. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34893805

71.   TNFα increases tyrosine hydroxylase expression in human monocytes.
Gopinath A, Badov M, Francis M, Shaw G, Collins A, Miller DR, Hansen CA, Mackie P, Tansey MG, Dagra A, Madorsky I, Ramirez-Zamora A, Okun MS, Streit WJ, Khoshbouei H. NPJ Parkinsons Dis. 2021 Jul 20;7(1):62. doi: 10.1038/s41531-021-00201-x. PMID: 34285243

70.   Selective inhibition of soluble TNF using XPro1595 relieves pain and attenuates cerulein-induced pathology in mice.
Randhi R, Damon M, Dixon KJ. BMC Gastroenterol. 2021 May 28;21(1):243. doi: 10.1186/s12876-021-01827-0. PMID: 34049483

69.   Pharmacological inhibition of soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha (sTNFα) 2 weeks after high thoracic spinal cord injury does not affect sympathetic hyperreflexia.
O'Reilly M, Mironets E, Saltos T, Crowther K, Collyer E, Bethea J, Tom VJ.J Neurotrauma. 2021 Jan 4. doi: 10.1089/neu.2020.7504. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33397170


68.   Microglia, inflammation and gut microbiota responses in a progressive monkey model of Parkinson's disease: A case series.
Joers V, Masilamoni G, Kempf D, Weiss AR, Rotterman TM, Murray B, Yalcin-Cakmakli G, Voll RJ, Goodman MM, Howell L, Bachevalier J, Green SJ, Naqib A, Shaikh M, Engen PA, Keshavarzian A, Barnum CJ, Nye JA, Smith Y, Tansey MG.Neurobiol Dis. 2020 Oct;144:105027. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2020.105027. Epub 2020 Jul 24.PMID: 32712266

67.   Attenuating Neurogenic Sympathetic Hyperreflexia Robustly Improves Antibacterial Immunity After Chronic Spinal Cord Injury.
Mironets E, Fischer R, Bracchi-Ricard V, Saltos TM, Truglio TS, O'Reilly ML, Swanson KA, Bethea JR, Tom VJ.J Neurosci. 2020 Jan 8;40(2):478-492. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2417-19.2019. Epub 2019 Nov 21. PMID: 31754014 

66.  Targeting soluble tumor necrosis factor as a potential intervention to lower risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes.
De Sousa Rodrigues ME, Houser MC, Walker DI, Jones DP, Chang J, Barnum CJ, Tansey MG.Alzheimers Res Ther. 2019 Dec 31;12(1):1. doi: 10.1186/s13195-019-0546-4.PMID: 31892368


65.   TNF deficiency causes alterations in the spatial organization of neurogenic zones and alters the number of microglia and neurons in the cerebral cortex.
Yli-Karjanmaa M, Larsen KS, Fenger CD, Kristensen LK, Martin NA, Jensen PT, Breton A, Nathanson L, Nielsen PV, Lund MC, Carlsen SL, Gramsbergen JB, Finsen B, Stubbe J, Frich LH, Stolp H, Brambilla R, Anthony DC, Meyer M, Lambertsen KL. Brain Behav Immun. 2019 Sep 7. pii: S0889-1591(19)30576-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2019.08.195. [Epub ahead of print].

64.   Topical Administration of a Soluble TNF Inhibitor Reduces Infarct Volume After Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Mice.
Yli-Karjanmaa M, Clausen BH, Degn M, Novrup HG, Ellman DG, Toft-Jensen P, Szymkowski DE, Stensballe A, Meyer M, Brambilla R, Lambertsen KL.Front Neurosci. 2019 Aug 7;13:781. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2019.00781. eCollection 2019.

63.   Chronic psychological stress during adolescence induces sex-dependent adulthood inflammation, increased adiposity, and abnormal behaviors that are ameliorated by selective inhibition of soluble tumor necrosis factor with XPro1595.
Eidson LN, deSousa Rodrigues ME, Johnson MA, Barnum CJ, Duke BJ, Yang Y, Chang J, Kelly SD, Wildner M, Tesi RJ, Tansey MG. Brain Behav Immun. 2019 Jun 25. pii: S0889-1591(19)30108-4. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2019.06.027. [Epub ahead of print].

62.   Neurodegenerative disease treatments by direct TNF reduction, SB623 cells, maraviroc and irisin and MCC950, from an inflammatory perspective - a Commentary.
Clark IA, Vissel B. Expert Rev Neurother. 2019 Jun;19(6):535-543. doi: 10.1080/14737175.2019.1618710. Epub 2019 May 24. PMID: 31092047. REVIEW PAPER

61.   Systemic inhibition of soluble TNF with XPro1595 exacerbates a post-spinal cord injury depressive phenotype in female rats.
Farrell K, Houle JD. J Neurotrauma. 2019 May 8. doi: 10.1089/neu.2019.6438. [Epub ahead of print].

60.   XPro1595 ameliorates bone cancer pain in rats via inhibiting p38-mediated glial cell activation and neuroinflammation in the spinal dorsal horn.
Zhou KX, He XT, Hu XF, Zhao WJ, Li CX, Zhang C, Zhang T, Gu ZX, Deng JP, Dong YL. Brain Res Bull. 2019 Jul;149:137-147. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2019.04.009. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

59.   Inhibition of soluble TNFα prevents adverse atrial remodeling and atrial arrhythmia susceptibility induced in mice by endurance exercise.
Lakin R, Polidovitch N, Yang S, Guzman C, Gao X, Wauchop M, Backx PH. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2019 Feb 20. pii: S0022-2828(18)31132-5. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2019.01.012. [Epub ahead of print].

58.   Group A Streptococcus Subcutaneous Infection-Induced Central Nervous System Inflammation Is Attenuated by Blocking Peripheral TNF.
Ya-Hui Liu, Pei-Hua Wu, Chih-Cheng Kang, Yau-Sheng Tsai, Chuan-Kai Chou, Chung-Tiang Liang, Jiunn-Jong Wu, and Pei-Jane Tsai. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2019 Feb 19.

57.   Effects of early life stress on cocaine conditioning and AMPA receptor composition are sex-specific and driven by TNF.
Ganguly P, Honeycutt JA, Rowe JR, Demaestri C, Brenhouse HC. Brain Behav Immun. 2019 Jan 14. pii: S0889-1591(18)30643-3. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2019.01.006. [Epub ahead of print].


56.   TNFR1 inhibition is therapeutic for neuropathic pain in males but not females.
Rivero TD, Fischer R, Yang F, Swanson KA, Bethea JR. Pain. 2018 Dec 21. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001470. [Epub ahead of print]

55.   Translational control of depression-like behavior via phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E.
Aguilar-Valles A, Haji N, De Gregorio D, Matta-Camacho E, Eslamizade MJ, Popic J, Sharma V, Cao R, Rummel C, Tanti A, Wiebe S, Nuñez N, Comai S, 2019_Nadon R, Luheshi G, Mechawar N, Turecki G, Lacaille JC, Gobbi G, Sonenberg N. Nat Commun. 2018 Jun 25;9(1):2459. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-04883-5.

54.   Soluble TNFα signaling within the spinal cord contributes to the development of autonomic dysreflexia and ensuing vascular and immune dysfunction after spinal cord injury.
Mironets E, Osei-Owusu P, Bracchi-Ricard V, Fischer R, Owens EA, Ricard J, Wu D, Saltos T, Collyer E, Hou S, Bethea JR, Tom VJ. J Neurosci. 2018 Apr 2. pii: 2376-17. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2376-17.2018. [Epub ahead of print].

53.   Preventing synaptic deficits in Alzheimer's disease by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor alpha signaling.
Cavanagh C, Wong TP. IBRO Rep. 2018 Feb 2;4:18-21. doi: 10.1016/j.ibror.2018.01.003. eCollection 2018 Jun. PMID: 30135948. REVIEW PAPER

52.   Involvement of mGluR I in EphB/ephrinB reverse signaling activation induced retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in a rat chronic hypertension model.
Zhao Y, Li Q, Li XY, Cui P, Gao F, Zhu K, Li LZ, Sun XH, Wang Z. Brain Res. 2018 Jan 20. pii: S0006-8993(18)30031-3. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2018.01.017. [Epub ahead of print].


51.   Deprivation-Induced Homeostatic Spine Scaling In Vivo Is Localized to Dendritic Branches that Have Undergone Recent Spine Loss.
Barnes SJ, Franzoni E, Jacobsen RI, Erdelyi F, Szabo G, Clopath C, Keller GB, Keck T.
Neuron. 2017 Nov 15;96(4):871-882.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2017.09.052. Epub 2017 Nov 5

50.  Inhibition of TNF reduces mechanical orofacial hyperalgesia induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant by a TRPV1-dependent mechanism in mice.
Lis K, Grygorowicz T, Cudna A, Szymkowski DE, Bałkowiec-Iskra E. Pharmacol Rep. 2017 Dec;69(6):1380-1385. doi: 10.1016/j.pharep.2017.05.013. Epub 2017 Jun 3.

49.   Trypanosoma brucei growth control by TNF in mammalian host is independent of the soluble form of the cytokine.
Vanwalleghem G, Morias Y, Beschin A, Szymkowski DE, Pays E.
Sci Rep. 2017 Jul 21;7(1):6165. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-06496-2.

48.   Systemic TNF-α produces acute cognitive dysfunction and exaggerated sickness behavior when superimposed upon progressive neurodegeneration.
Hennessy E, Gormley S, Lopez-Rodriguez AB, Murray C, Murray C, Cunningham C. Brain Behav Immun. 2017 Jan;59:233-244. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2016.09.011. Epub 2016 Sep 12.

47.   Hippocampal TNFα Signaling Contributes to Seizure Generation in an Infection-Induced Mouse Model of Limbic Epilepsy.
Patel DC, Wallis G, Dahle EJ, McElroy PB, Thomson KE, Tesi RJ, Szymkowski DE, West PJ, Smeal RM, Patel M, Fujinami RS, White HS, Wilcox KS. eNeuro. 2017 May 9;4(2). pii: ENEURO.0105-17.2017. doi: 10.1523/ENEURO.0105-17.2017. eCollection 2017 Mar-Apr.

46.   Therapeutic inhibition of soluble brain TNF promotes remyelination by increasing myelin phagocytosis by microglia.
Karamita M, Barnum C, Möbius W, Tansey MG, Szymkowski DE, Lassmann H, Probert L. JCI Insight. 2017 Apr 20;2(8). pii: 87455. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.87455

45.   Peripheral administration of the soluble TNF inhibitor XPro1595 modifies brain immune cell profiles, decreases beta-amyloid plaque load, and rescues impaired long-term potentiation in 5xFAD mice. MacPherson KP, Sompol P, Kannarkat GT, Chang J, Sniffen L, Wildner ME, Norris CM, Tansey MG. Neurobiol Dis. 2017 Jun;102:81-95. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2017.02.010. Epub 2017 Feb 24.

44.   Toll-like Receptor 4 Mediates Morphine-Induced Neuroinflammation and Tolerance via Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Signaling.
Eidson LN, Inoue K, Young LJ, Tansey MG, Murphy AZ.Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 Feb;42(3):661-670. doi: 10.1038/npp.2016.131. Epub 2016 Jul 27.


43.   Inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-α before amyloidosis prevents synaptic deficits in an Alzheimer's disease model.
Cavanagh C, Tse YC, Nguyen HB, Krantic S, Breitner JC, Quirion R, Wong TP. Neurobiol Aging. 2016 Nov;47:41-49. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2016.07.009. Epub 2016 Jul 25.

42.   Genetic Ablation of Soluble TNF Does Not Affect Lesion Size and Functional Recovery after Moderate Spinal Cord Injury in Mice.
Ellman DG, Degn M, Lund MC, Clausen BH, Novrup HG, Flæng SB, Jørgensen LH, Suntharalingam L, Svenningsen ÅF, Brambilla R, Lambertsen KL. Mediators Inflamm. 2016;2016:2684098. doi: 10.1155/2016/2684098. Epub 2016 Dec 14.

41.   Oligodendroglial TNFR2 Mediates Membrane TNF-Dependent Repair in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Promoting Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and Remyelination.
Madsen PM, Motti D, Karmally S, Szymkowski DE, Lambertsen KL, Bethea JR, Brambilla R. J Neurosci. 2016 May 4;36(18):5128-43. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0211-16.2016.

40.   Inhibition of Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Prevents Chemically Induced Carcinogenesis in Mice.
Sobo-Vujanovic A, Vujanovic L, DeLeo AB, Concha-Benavente F, Ferris RL, Lin Y, Vujanovic NL. Cancer Immunol Res. 2016 May;4(5):441-51. doi: 10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-15-0104. Epub 2016 Feb 19.

39.   Transmembrane TNF-α is sufficient for articular inflammation and hypernociception in a mouse model of gout.
Amaral FA, Bastos LF, Oliveira TH, Dias AC, Oliveira VL, Tavares LD, Costa VV, Galvão I, Soriani FM, Szymkowski DE, Ryffel B, Souza DG, Teixeira MM. Eur J Immunol. 2016 Jan;46(1):204-11. doi: 10.1002/eji.201545798. Epub 2015 Nov 4.


38.   TNF compromises lysosome acidification and reduces α-synuclein degradation via autophagy in dopaminergic cells.
Wang MX, Cheng XY, Jin M, Cao YL, Yang YP, Wang JD, Li Q, Wang F, Hu LF, Liu CF. Exp Neurol. 2015 Sep;271:112-21. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2015.05.008. Epub 2015 May 19.

37.   Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Promotes Retinal Ganglion Cell Death in Glaucoma via Calcium-Permeable AMPA Receptor Activation.
Cueva Vargas JL, Osswald IK, Unsain N, Aurousseau MR, Barker PA, Bowie D, Di Polo A. J Neurosci. 2015 Sep 2;35(35):12088-102. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1273-15.2015.

36.   Transmembrane TNF-TNFR2 Impairs Th17 Differentiation by Promoting Il2 Expression.
Miller PG, Bonn MB, McKarns SC. J Immunol. 2015 Sep 15;195(6):2633-47. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1500286. Epub 2015 Aug 12.


35.   Putative role of protein kinase C in neurotoxic inflammation mediated by extracellular heat shock protein 70 after ischemia-reperfusion.
Dvoriantchikova G, Santos AR, Saeed AM, Dvoriantchikova X, Ivanov D. J Neuroinflammation. 2014 Apr 23;11:81. doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-11-81.

34.   An adaptive role of TNFα in the regulation of striatal synapses.
Lewitus GM, Pribiag H, Duseja R, St-Hilaire M, Stellwagen D. J Neurosci. 2014 Apr 30;34(18):6146-55. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3481-13.2014.

33.   AAV-dominant negative tumor necrosis factor (DN-TNF) gene transfer to the striatum does not rescue medium spiny neurons in the YAC128 mouse model of Huntington's disease.
Alto LT, Chen X, Ruhn KA, Treviño I, Tansey MG. PLoS One. 2014 May 13;9(5):e96544. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096544.

32.   Dendritic-cell exosomes cross-present Toll-like receptor-ligands and activate bystander dendritic cells.
Sobo-Vujanovic A, Munich S, Vujanovic NL. Cell Immunol. 2014 May-Jun;289(1-2):119-27. doi: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2014.03.016. Epub 2014 Apr 8.

31.   Altered expression of oligodendrocyte and neuronal marker genes predicts the clinical onset of autoimmune encephalomyelitis and indicates the effectiveness of multiple sclerosis-directed therapeutics. Evangelidou M, Karamita M, Vamvakas SS, Szymkowski DE, Probert L. J Immunol. 2014 May 1;192(9):4122-33. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1300633. Epub 2014 Mar 28.

30.   Adipocyte inflammation is essential for healthy adipose tissue expansion and remodeling.
Wernstedt Asterholm I, Tao C, Morley TS, Wang QA, Delgado-Lopez F, Wang ZV, Scherer PE. Cell Metab. 2014 Jul 1;20(1):103-18. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.05.005. Epub 2014 Jun 12.

29.   Systemically administered anti-TNF therapy ameliorates functional outcomes after focal cerebral ischemia.
Clausen BH, Degn M, Martin NA, Couch Y, Karimi L, Ormhøj M, Mortensen ML, Gredal HB, Gardiner C, Sargent II, Szymkowski DE, Petit GH, Deierborg T, Finsen B, Anthony DC, Lambertsen KL. J Neuroinflammation. 2014 Dec 12;11:203. doi: 10.1186/s12974-014-0203-6.

28.   Central but not systemic administration of XPro1595 is therapeutic following moderate spinal cord injury in mice.
Novrup HG, Bracchi-Ricard V, Ellman DG, Ricard J, Jain A, Runko E, Lyck L, Yli-Karjanmaa M, Szymkowski DE, Pearse DD, Lambertsen KL, Bethea JR. J Neuroinflammation. 2014 Sep 10;11:159. doi: 10.1186/s12974-014-0159-6.

27.   Peripheral administration of the selective inhibitor of soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) XPro®1595 attenuates nigral cell loss and glial activation in 6-OHDA hemiparkinsonian rats.
Barnum CJ, Chen X, Chung J, Chang J, Williams M, Grigoryan N, Tesi RJ, Tansey MG. J Parkinsons Dis. 2014;4(3):349-60. doi: 10.3233/JPD-140410.

26.   Selective effects of a therapeutic protein targeting tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cytochrome P450 regulation during infectious colitis: Implications for disease-dependent drug-drug interactions.
Nyagode BA, Jahangardi R, Merrell MD, Tansey MG, Morgan ET. Pharmacol Res Perspect. 2014 Feb 1;2(1):e00027.

25.   Inhibition of soluble tumor necrosis factor is therapeutic in Huntington's disease.
Hsiao HY, Chiu FL, Chen CM, Wu YR, Chen HM, Chen YC, Kuo HC, Chern Y. Hum Mol Genet. 2014 Aug 15;23(16):4328-44. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddu151. Epub 2014 Apr 3.

24.   Tumor necrosis factor suppresses NR5A2 activity and intestinal glucocorticoid synthesis to sustain chronic colitis.
Huang SC, Lee CT, Chung BC. Sci Signal. 2014 Feb 25;7(314):ra20. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.2004786.


23.   Tumor necrosis factor-neuropeptide Y cross talk regulates inflammation, epithelial barrier functions, and colonic motility.
Chandrasekharan B, Jeppsson S, Pienkowski S, Belsham DD, Sitaraman SV, Merlin D, Kokkotou E, Nusrat A, Tansey MG, Srinivasan S. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Nov;19(12):2535-46. doi: 10.1097/01.MIB.0000437042.59208.9f.

22.   Chronic dim light at night provokes reversible depression-like phenotype: possible role for TNF.
Bedrosian TA, Weil ZM, Nelson RJ. Mol Psychiatry. 2013 Aug;18(8):930-6. doi: 10.1038/mp.2012.96. Epub 2012 Jul 24.

21.   Neutralization of membrane TNF, but not soluble TNF, is crucial for the treatment of experimental colitis.
Perrier C, de Hertogh G, Cremer J, Vermeire S, Rutgeerts P, Van Assche G, Szymkowski DE, Ceuppens JL. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Feb;19(2):246-53. doi: 10.1002/ibd.23023.

20.   Peripheral elevation of TNF-α leads to early synaptic abnormalities in the mouse somatosensory cortex in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
Yang G, Parkhurst CN, Hayes S, Gan WB. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jun 18;110(25):10306-11. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1222895110.

19.   Differential expression and tumor necrosis factor-mediated regulation of TNFRSF11b/osteoprotegerin production by human melanomas.
Oliver JL, Alexander MP, Norrod AG, Mullins IM, Mullins DW. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2013 Jul;26(4):571-9. doi: 10.1111/pcmr.12091.


18.   Inhibition of soluble tumor necrosis factor ameliorates synaptic alterations and Ca2+ dysregulation in aged rats.
Sama DM, Mohmmad Abdul H, Furman JL, Artiushin IA, Szymkowski DE, Scheff SW, Norris CM. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e38170. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038170.

17.   Tumour necrosis factor-mediated macrophage activation in the target organ is critical for clinical manifestation of uveitis.
Khera TK, Copland DA, Boldison J, Lait PJ, Szymkowski DE, Dick AD, Nicholson LB. Clin Exp Immunol. 2012 May;168(2):165-77. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2012.04567.x.

16.   Dendritic cell exosomes directly kill tumor cells and activate natural killer cells via TNF superfamily ligands.
Munich S, Sobo-Vujanovic A, Buchser WJ, Beer-Stolz D, Vujanovic NL. Oncoimmunology. 2012 Oct 1;1(7):1074-1083.


15.   Inhibition of soluble tumour necrosis factor is therapeutic in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes axon preservation and remyelination.
Brambilla R, Ashbaugh JJ, Magliozzi R, Dellarole A, Karmally S, Szymkowski DE, Bethea JR. Brain. 2011 Sep;134(Pt 9):2736-54. doi: 10.1093/brain/awr199.

14.   Allergic lung inflammation is mediated by soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and attenuated by dominant-negative TNF biologics.
Maillet I, Schnyder-Candrian S, Couillin I, Quesniaux VF, Erard F, Moser R, Fleury S, Kanda A, Dombrowicz D, Szymkowski DE, Ryffel B. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011 Oct;45(4):731-9. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2010-0512OC.

13.   Transmembrane tumour necrosis factor is neuroprotective and regulates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via neuronal nuclear factor-kappaB.
Taoufik E, Tseveleki V, Chu SY, Tselios T, Karin M, Lassmann H, Szymkowski DE, Probert L. Brain. 2011 Sep;134(Pt 9):2722-35. doi: 10.1093/brain/awr203.

12.   Delayed dominant-negative TNF gene therapy halts progressive loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.
Harms AS, Barnum CJ, Ruhn KA, Varghese S, Treviño I, Blesch A, Tansey MG. Mol Ther. 2011 Jan;19(1):46-52. doi: 10.1038/mt.2010.217.


11.   zVAD-induced necroptosis in L929 cells depends on autocrine production of TNFα mediated by the PKC-MAPKs-AP-1 pathway.
Wu YT, Tan HL, Huang Q, Sun XJ, Zhu X, Shen HM. Cell Death Differ. 2011 Jan;18(1):26-37. doi: 10.1038/cdd.2010.72.

10.   Soluble TNF, but not membrane TNF, is critical in LPS-induced hepatitis.
Olleros ML, Vesin D, Fotio AL, Santiago-Raber ML, Tauzin S, Szymkowski DE, Garcia I.J Hepatol. 2010 Dec;53(6):1059-68. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2010.05.029.

9.     Virally infected and matured human dendritic cells activate natural killer cells via cooperative activity of plasma membrane-bound TNF and IL-15.
Vujanovic L, Szymkowski DE, Alber S, Watkins SC, Vujanovic NL, Butterfield LH. Blood. 2010 Jul 29;116(4):575-83. doi: 10.1182/blood-2009-08-240325.

8.     Novel mutants of human tumor necrosis factor with dominant-negative properties.
Shingarova LN, Boldyreva EF, Yakimov SA, Guryanova SV, Dolgikh DA, Nedospasov SA, Kirpichnikov MP. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2010 Dec;75(12):1458-63.


7.     Dominant-negative tumor necrosis factor protects from Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) and endotoxin-induced liver injury without compromising host immunity to BCG and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Olleros ML, Vesin D, Lambou AF, Janssens JP, Ryffel B, Rose S, Frémond C, Quesniaux VF, Szymkowski DE, Garcia I. J Infect Dis. 2009 Apr 1;199(7):1053-63. doi: 10.1086/597204.

6.     Inhibition of soluble TNF signaling in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease prevents pre-plaque amyloid-associated neuropathology.
McAlpine FE, Lee JK, Harms AS, Ruhn KA, Blurton-Jones M, Hong J, Das P, Golde TE, LaFerla FM, Oddo S, Blesch A, Tansey MG. Neurobiol Dis. 2009 Apr;34(1):163-77.

5.     Intranigral lentiviral delivery of dominant-negative TNF attenuates neurodegeneration and behavioral deficits in hemiparkinsonian rats.
McCoy MK, Ruhn KA, Martinez TN, McAlpine FE, Blesch A, Tansey MG. Mol Ther. 2008 Sep;16(9):1572-9. doi: 10.1038/mt.2008.146.


4.     Dominant-negative inhibitors of soluble TNF attenuate experimental arthritis without suppressing innate immunity to infection.
Zalevsky J, Secher T, Ezhevsky SA, Janot L, Steed PM, O'Brien C, Eivazi A, Kung J, Nguyen DH, Doberstein SK, Erard F, Ryffel B, Szymkowski DE. J Immunol. 2007 Aug 1;179(3):1872-83.


3.     Blocking soluble tumor necrosis factor signaling with dominant-negative tumor necrosis factor inhibitor attenuates loss of dopaminergic neurons in models of Parkinson's disease.
McCoy MK, Martinez TN, Ruhn KA, Szymkowski DE, Smith CG, Botterman BR, Tansey KE, Tansey MG. J Neurosci. 2006 Sep 13;26(37):9365-75.


2.     JNK and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediate free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
Nguyen MT, Satoh H, Favelyukis S, Babendure JL, Imamura T, Sbodio JI, Zalevsky J, Dahiyat BI, Chi NW, Olefsky JM. J Biol Chem. 2005 Oct 21;280(42):35361-71.


  1. Inactivation of TNF signaling by rationally designed dominant-negative TNF variants.
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